the Bose-Einstein Condensate (1995) was observed by Physicists at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics


M-theory (1995)



one of the first Grand Unification Theories (1974) was put forward by Howard Georgi and Sheldon L. Glashow



the Standard Model of particle physics (1973)



the National Accelerator Laboratory (1967)


the bubble chamber (1952)



Einstein's Unified field theory (1950)


Physics Today (1948)



the world's first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction ( December 2, 1942)

took place in the world's first nuclear reactor, Chicago Pile Number One


Big Science



Otto Hahn and Fritz Straßmann succeeded (1938) to split the nucleus of a uranium atom

on a simple wooden experimenting table, in the first instance of induced Nuclear fission



Georges Lemaître (1927) derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations

from Albert Einstein's equations of general relativity and proposed, that the Universe

began with the "explosion" of a "primeval atom" - what was later called the Big Bang


the existence of the neutron (1920) was suggested by William Draper Harkins.

Evidence for its existence was not obtained until 1932



Arthur Eddington's Report on the relativity theory of gravitation (1919)


Rutherford discovered the proton (1919) in his experiments on artificial disintegration



the Sommerfeld model of the atom (1916)


the fine-structure constant (1916)


the Schwarzschild radius (1916)



General relativity (1915)


Moseley's law (1913)



the Bohr model of the atom (1913)


Echo sounding (1912)


Gustav Mie's Unified field theory (1912)


superconductivity (1911)



the Solvay Conference (1911)



the Rutherford model (1911)


the Geiger-Marsden experiment (1909)


Robert Millikan's oil-drop experiment (1909)


Einstein published his principle of equivalence (1907) which says that gravitational

acceleration is indistinguishable from acceleration caused by mechanical forces


the third law of thermodynamics (1906) was proposed by Hermann Nernst


Spacetime (1905)



the Annus Mirabilis Papers (1905)


Ernst Haeckel's Riddle of the Universe (1901)


the Drude model (1900)



Planck's constant (1900)



Radioactivity was first discovered (1896) by the French scientist Henri Becquerel while working on phosphorescent materials



Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen began observing and further documenting X-rays (November 8, 1895) 


Jean Baptiste Perrin (1895) explained solar energy by the thermonuclear reactions of hydrogen



the Michelson-Morley experiment (1887)


Balmer lines (1885)


Svante Arrhenius' work on the conductivities of electrolytes (1884)


Tesla, Gaulard, Stanley, and others (1881) invented alternating current electrical power


Josiah Willard Gibbs' On the Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Substances (1876-1878) laid the foundations of physical chemistry



the second law of thermodynamics (1874) was formally stated by Lord Kelvin


the concept of entropy (1865) was introduced by Rudolf Clausius


Maxwell's equations (1864)


Anders Jonas Ångström's studies of the solar spectrum (1861)


the Gyroscope (1852) was invented by Jean Foucalt



the Foucault pendulum (1851)



Hippolyte Fizeau (1850) measured the speed of light and electricity


Absolute Zero (1848) was proposed by William Thomson Kelvin



the first law of thermodynamics (1847) was published as a definitive statement of the conservation of energy by Hermann von Helmholtz



Joule's law (1840)


the Coriolis effect (1835)



Gaspard-Gustave Coriolis (1829) published "Du Calcul de l'effet des machines" outlining the mathematics of kinetic energy



the first statement of Ohm’s law (1827) that the current of electricity is equal to the ratio of the voltage

to the resistance, appeared in Georg Simon Ohm`s "The galvanic circuit investigated mathematically"


the Electromagnet (1824) was invented by William Sturgeon


Joseph Fourier's Analytical Theory of Heat (1822)



the Seebeck effect was first discovered (1821) accidentally, by the Estonian physicist Thomas Johann Seebeck,

who found that a voltage existed between two ends of a metal bar when a temperature gradient existed in the bar



the first electric motor (1821) was built by Michael Faraday



the relationship between electricity and magnetism (April 1820)

was discovered by Hans Christian Ørsted


Etienne-Louis Malus (1808) discovered polarised light



the ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum (1802) was discovered by Johann Wilhelm Ritter



Thomas Young's double-slit experiment (1801)


Infrared Radiation (1800) was discovered by William Herschel



the Cavendish experiment (1798)


Annalen der Physik (1790)


the law of conservation of mass (1789) was formulated by Antoine Lavoisier


Charles-Augustin de Coulomb (1785) presented his three reports on Electricity and Magnetism



the Atwood machine (1784)



Coulomb's torsion balance (1777)


Photometry (1760) was founded by Johann Heinrich Lambert



Émilie du Châtelet's correction of Newton's formula (1749) E = mv to E = mv²


the Celcius scale was changed (1743) so that 0 degrees

is the freezing point of water and 100 degrees is its boiling point


the Celsius temperature scale (1742) was proposed by Anders Celsius in a paper to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences



the Fahrenheit scale (1724)


Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit invented the first mercury thermometer (1714)


Johann Bessler's self-moving wheel (1712)


Newton's Opticks (1704)



Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (1687)



Newton's laws of motion were first published (1687) in his work "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica"


the law of elasticity (1678) was formulated by Robert Hooke



Christiaan Huygens' Traité de la lumiere (1678)



Ole Rømer made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light (1676)



Newton discovered that glass prisms (1666) separate white light into spectrum of colours



Newton's apple (1666)



the Magdeburg hemispheres (1650)



Descartes' vortices (1644)


the vacuum



the barometer (1643) was invented by Evangelista Torricelli


Pascal's work on the principles of hydraulic fluids (1642)


René Descartes published an explanation for rainbows and cloud formation (1637)


the principle of relativity (1632)


Benedetto Castelli's Mensuration of Running Water (1628)


Snell's law (1621)



Kepler's laws of planetary motion (1619)


William Gilbert's De Magnete (1600)



the microscope (1595) was invented by Hans Janssen



Galileo's thermoscope (1593)



in order to study the acceleration due to gravity (1589) Galileo Galilei introduced experiments with inclined planes



the Scientific revolution


Bernardino Telesio's De Rerum Natura (1565)



Niccolò Tartaglia's ballistics (1547)



Leonardo da Vinci's studies in science and engineering (1500)



explanations for the rainbow phenomenon (1300)



Pierre de Maricourt's Epistola de magnete (1269)


Al-Jazari's Automata (1205)


Thierry of Chartres' account of creation (twelveth century)



the earliest record about the use of a compass in navigation (1117) was Zhu Yu's book "Pingzhou Ke Tan"
(Pingzhou Table Talks). Alexander Neckam has preserved to us the earliest European notices of the magnet
as a guide to seamen in his work De naturis rerum, 1190


Ibn Sahl On Burning Mirrors and Lenses (984)



Chinese philosopher Chang Heng invented a seismoscope (132)


Lucretius' On the Nature of Things (around 60 bc)



Archimedes (ca. 245 bc) found it


Archimedes' inventions


Epicurus' atomism (310 bc)


Strato of Lampsacus (310 bc) can be regarded as the first philosopher to formulate a worldview,

in which the universe is regarded as a mechanism and transcendent forces (i.e. deities) are nonexistent



Pytheas suggested (330 bc) that the tides were caused by the moon

and described the Midnight Sun, the aurora and Polar ice


Aristotle argued for a spherical Earth (ca 330 bc)


Aristotle's minima naturalia



Aristotelian dynamics



Aristotle's five elements (350 bc)




Democritus (430 bc) developed the atomic theory from Leucippus



Leucippus (450 bc) was among the earliest originators of atomism



Empedocles' philosophy (460 bc) is best known for being the origin of the cosmogenic theory of the four classical elements



Anaximenes held that everything in the world is composed of air at different degrees of density (550 bc)



Anaximander claimed that arche is the apeiron



Thales held that the world originated from water (590 bc)


physis (8th century bc)



solar alignments of ritual sites (3200 bc)


ancient weights and measures