Eden Project (March 2001)



the Human Genome Project (2000) announced having completed its task



Dolly (1996-2003)



Biosphere 2 (1991-1994)


the Darwin Awards (1990s)



the Intelligent Design movement (1990s)


Polymerase chain reaction (1983) was invented by Kary B. Mullis


Rupert Sheldrake's New Science of Life (1981)


restriction enzymes (1978) were discovered by Werner Arber


Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976)


the Central dogma of molecular biology (1958)


Ribosomes (1956) were first observed by George Palade



the Miller-Urey experiment (1953)



the helical structure of the DNA molecule (1953) was discovered by

James D. Watson and Francis Crick together with Rosalind Franklin


the Scopes trial (1925)


the Mechanism of Mendelian Inheritance (1915)


Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen (1909) coined the word gene (using the Greek for "to give birth to")


the Hardy-Weinberg Rule (1908)


the term 'genetics' (1905) was coined by William Bateson


Ernst Haeckel's Riddle of the Universe (1901)


Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns (1900) rediscovered Mendel's work


germ plasm theory (1890s) was formulated by August Weismann


dating from tree rings (late 19th century)



Gregor Mendel's Experiments on Plant Hybridization (1865)


George Marsh's Man and Nature (1864)



Darwin's Origin of Species (1859)


Cell theory (1839)




the first enzyme (1833) diastase was discovered by Anselme Payen


Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's Philosophie zoologique (1809)


Erasmus Darwin's Zoönomia (1796)


Buffon's Histoire naturelle, générale et particulière (1788)



bioelectricity (1780) was discovered by Luigi Galvani


photosynthesis (1779) was discovered by Jan Ingenhousz


Lazzaro Spallanzani proved that boiling kills microorganisms (1768)


Caspar Friedrich Wolff's Theoria Generationis (1759)


the 10th edition of Carolus Linnaeus' Systema naturae (1758)

introduced the zoological nomenclature known as Linnaean taxonomy



Steller's Sea Cow was discovered in the Bering Strait (1741) by the

naturalist Georg Steller who was traveling with the explorer Vitus Bering


Carolus Linnaeus' Systema naturae (1735)



Stephen Hales' Vegetable Staticks (1727)


John Ray's Historia Plantarum (1704)


Rudolf Jakob Camerarius' De sexu plantarum epistola (1694)



John Ray's Synopsis methodica Animalium Quadrupedum et Serpentini Generis (1693)


Nehemiah Grew's Anatomy of Plants (1682)



microorganisms (1676) were discovered by Anton van Leeuwenhoek


Jan Swammerdam (1668) observed and described red blood cells with his microscope



Robert Hooke's Micrographia (1665)



the microscope (1595) was invented by Hans Janssen


Ulisse Aldrovandi's textbooks on zoology (1599)



Conrad Gessner's Historiae Animalium (1558)


Otto Brunfels' Herbarum vivae icones (1530)



the Age of Discovery (early 15th century - early 17th century)


Pliny the Elder's Natural History (77)



Pedanius Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (70)


Theophrastus' botanical treatises (340 bc)


Speusippus (370 bc) wrote books on biological classification



Xenophanes (540 bc) concluded from his examination of fossils

that water once must have covered all of the Earth's surface