Natural sciences are the empirical sciences endeavoring to explain or predict nature's phenomena. There are five branches of natural science: astronomy, biology,
chemistry, the Earth sciences and physics. Each domain collaborates experimental/observational and theoretical/mathematical divisions. Usually traced, especially
via Aristotle, to ancient Greece, natural science succeeds natural philosophy, which Galileo gave an experimental turn, Descartes gave a mechanical turn, and Newton
gave a mathematical turn. Still, philosophical perspectives, conjectures, and presuppositions, often overlooked, remain requisite in natural science. Systematic data
collection, including discovery science, succeed natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, animals, minerals, and so on.