Turkey started preliminary negotiations to join the EU (October 3, 2005)


Article 301 (2005)


Orhan Pamuk (February 2005)


Turgut Özakman's Şu Çılgın Türkler (2005)


the new Turkish lira (2005)


2003 Istanbul bombings


Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (March 14, 2003)


Abdullah Öcalan (1999)


Leyla Zana (1994)



Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (July 3, 1988)


the Village guard system


Kurdistan Workers Party


Denial of the Armenian Genocide


 the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus (1974)


the Ankara Agreements (1963)


döner kebab


Military coup (1960)




Multi-Party Period


Turkey declared war on Germany and Japan (February 1945)


Hatay became a province of Turkey (1939)


the Republic of Hatay (September 2, 1938)


the Dersim Rebellions (1937)


the Turkish Grand Assembly presented Mustafa Kemal (November 24, 1934)

with the name "Atatürk" (meaning "Father" or "Ancestor Turk")


Mustafa Kemal (March 3, 1924) removed the caliphate system and all religious influence from the state




secular westernization


Single-Party Period


foundation of the Turkish Republic (October 29, 1923)



the Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923)



the Turkish army re-took possession of İzmir (September 9, 1922)


the Battle of Dumlupinar (August 26 - 30, 1922)


the Treaty of Kars (October 23, 1921)


proclamation of the Turkish Republic (January 20, 1921)



the Treaty of Sèvres (August 10, 1920)


the Grand National Assembly of Turkey (April 23, 1920)


the Sivas Congress gathered (September 4, 1919) which was the basis for the

founding of the new Turkish State based on the principle of national sovereignty


the Treaty of Versailles (June 28, 1919)


the Declaration of Amasya (June 1919)


the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922)


the Turkish War of Independence (May 19, 1919-October 29, 1923)


the Armenian Genocide



the Battle of Gallipoli (February 19, 1915 - January 9, 1916)


Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire


Young Turks (1889)


the first Turkish parliament, under the name of "General Assembly", started activities on (March 20, 1877) as a bicameral assembly


the Sick man of Europe


Decline of the Ottoman Empire


lokum (1776)


the Tulip Era


Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire ()


Battle of Vienna (September 12, 1683)




Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566)



the Fall of Constantinople (May 29, 1453)


Turkish belly dancing


Nasreddin (13th century)



the Ottoman empire (1299-1923) was founded by Osman I. When sultan Mehmed II conquered
Constantinople in 1453, the state grew into a mighty empire which reached its apex under Suleiman the
Magnificent in the16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the
northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north. After its defeat at the Battle of
Vienna in 1683 against the Austrians and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, however, the empire
began a slow decline, culminating in the demolition of the empire by the Allies in World war I


Mevlevi (1273)


the Seljuq dynasty (11th to 14th centuries)


Thrace (4th century bc)


the Ionian School (6th century bc)


the Milesian school (6th century bc)


Ionia (7th century bc)


Lydia arose as a "Neo-Hittite" kingdom following the collapse of the Hittite Empire in the (12th century bc)


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