the Table of Free Voices (September 9, 2006)


wikipedia (January 15, 2001)


the Human Genome Project (2000) announced having completed its task


Sophie's World (1995)


Cambridge Companions to Philosophy (1991)


dtv-Atlas Philosophie (1991)


the International Zetetic Challenge (1987-2002)


Hawking's Brief History of Time (1988)


the Collège international de philosophie (1983)


the Mandelbrot set (1982)


Rand's Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology (1967)


Derrida's Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences (1966)


the Gettier problem (1963)


Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962)


the Harvard Psilocybin Project (1960 - March 1962)


Chomsky's Syntactic Structures (1957)


Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949)


de Beauvoir's Second Sex (1949)


Walden Two (1948)


Russell's History of Western Philosophy (1945)


Popper's Open Society and Its Enemies (1945)


Hayek's Road to Serfdom (1944)


Sartre's Being and Nothingness (1943)


Weil's L'Enracinement (1943)


computers (1937)


(the history of) Philosophy by Jaspers (1932)


Dirac's Principles of Quantum Mechanics (1930)


the Big Bang theory (1927)


Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle (1927)


Heidegger's Being and Time (1927)


Hochschule für Philosophie München (1925)


the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921)


Husserl's Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie (1913)


Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica (1910)


the Annus Mirabilis Papers (1905)


Moore's Principia Ethica (1903)


Adamson's Development of Modern Philosophy (1903)


Freud's Interpretation of Dreams (November 1899)


Steiner's Philosophy of Freedom (1893)


Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1885)


Sacred Books of the East (1879)


Frege`s Begriffsschrift (1879)


Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873)


the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1865)


Darwin's Origin of Species (1859)


Mill's On Liberty (1859)


Thoreau's Walden (1854)


the Communist Manifesto (1848)


Boole's Mathematical Analysis of Logic (1847)


De Morgan's Formal Logic (1847)


the Smithonian Institution (1846)


Kierkegaard's Either/Or (1843)


von Humboldt's Heterogeneity of Language and its

Influence on the Intellectual Development of Mankind (1836)


Whewell's History and Philosophy of the Sciences (1833)


Ast's Hauptmomente der Geschichte der Philosophie (1829)


Comte's Plan de travaux scientifiques nécessaires pour réorganiser la société (1822)


Schopenhauer's World as Will and Representation (1819)


Schopenhauer On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (1813)


the Phenomenology of Spirit (1807)


Schleiermacher's On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers (1799)


the Institut de France (October 25, 1795)


the Cult of Reason (1793)


the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789)


Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (1785)


the Critique of Pure Reason (1781)


Bentham's Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation (1780)


Smith' Wealth of Nations (1776)


the U.S. Declaration of Independence (1776)


Herder's Treatise on the Origin of Language (1772)


the Encyclopædia Britannica (1771)


Voltaire's Candide (1759)


the Kant-Laplace theory (1755)


Rousseau's Discourse on Inequality (1754)


l’Encyclopédie (1751)



 Voltaire followed an invitation by Frederick the Great (1750-1753) to stay with him at Sanssouci


Montesquieu's Spirit of the Laws (1748)


the American Philosophical Society (1743)


Hume's Treatise of Human Nature (1740)


Vico's New Science (1725)


Leibniz' Monadology (1714)


Jakob Bernoulli's Ars Conjectandi (1713)


Berkeley's Principles of Human Knowledge (1710)


Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689)


the English Bill of Rights (1689)


Newton's Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (July 5, 1687)


Spinoza's Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata (1677)


Blaise Pascal's Pensées (1670)


Hobbes' Leviathan (1651)


René Descartes stayed at the court of Queen Christina of Sweden (1649-1650) until he died of pneumonia


Meditations on First Philosophy (1641)


Harvard University (September 8, 1636)


Galileo (1633) was tried and ordered to spend the rest of his life under house arrest


Francis Bacon's Novum Organum (1620)


Kepler's Astronomia nova (1609)


Montaigne's Essays (1580)


Königsberg Albertina University (1544-1945)


Copernicus' On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)


the School of Salamanca (1520)


More's Utopia (1515)


the Gutenberg Bible (1455)


the Yongle Dadian (1408)


renaissance humanism (late 14th century)


Universität zu Köln (1388)


University of Heidelberg (1386)


Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy (1321)


Llull's Ars magna (1305)


Aquinas' Summa Theologiae (1272)


Roger Bacon sent his Opus Majus (1267) to the pope


University of Cambridge (1209)


the writings of Aristotle were rediscovered in the West (1180)

by Averroes, Moses Maimonides and Thomas Aquinas


University of Paris (1150)


University of Oxford (1117)


scholasticism (1100)


University of Bologna (1088)


Al-Azhar University (969)


Jami'at al-Qarawiyyin (857)


Boethius (524) was executed by Theodoric


Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy (524)


Augustine's City of God (426)


Diogenes Laërtius' Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers (ca. 220)


neoplatonism (3rd century)


marcionism (144)


Plutarch's Parallel Lives (86)


Christianity (28)


the Pali Canon (30 bc)


a delegation of Greek philosophers traveled to Rome (156 bc)


the Romans conquered Syracuse (212 bc) and killed Archimedes


Archimedes (ca. 245 bc) found it


the Library of Pergamon (3rd century - 41 bc)


the yin yang school (275 bc)


the Library of Alexandria (280 bc - 380 ad)


Euclid`s Elements (300 bc)


the Garden of Epicurus (307 bc)


Zeno of Citium's stoicism (308 bc)


Aristotle took up residence at his country house at Chalcis, in Euboea (323 bc)

after the charge of impiety had been brought against him


Pyrrho of Elis's skepticism (330 bc)


Aristotle's Metaphysics (ca 330 bc)


Aristotle's Lyceum (335 bc) 


Aristotle became the tutor and later advisor of Alexander the Great (342-336 bc)


Diogenes of Sinope (mid 4th century bc) lived in a tub and

lit a lamp in broad daylight, looking for a real human being


Aristotle studied at the Academy (367-347 bc)


Plato founded the Academy (385 bc)



the Politeia (390 bc)


the trial of Socrates (399 bc)


 the Megarians (400 bc)


Antisthenes' cynicism (414 bc)


Socrates' friend Chaerephon asked the oracle at Delphi if anyone was wiser than Socrates (5th century bc)

the Oracle responded negatively. Socrates, interpreting this as a riddle, set out to find men who were wiser than he was


the Sophists (5th century bc)


Pythagoras died (ca. 490 bc) when anti-Pythagorean

demonstrators set the commune house where he was living on fire


the Eleatics (early fifth century)


Confucius (501 bc) was appointed magistrate of justice in Lu


Pythagoras coined the term philosopher


Pythagoreans (523 bc)


Siddhartha Gautama (528 bc) sitting under

a Bodhi tree, attained Enlightenment


the Milesian school (6th century bc)


the Ionian School (6th century bc)


Athenian democracy (594 bc)


the Seven Sages (620 bc)