Space colonization


SpaceShipOne (June 21, 2004) completed the first privately funded human spaceflight


the international space station (October 31, 2000)


the Degree Confluence Project (1996)


the U.S. Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking (NEAT) (March 1996)

detected about 200 new asteroids, in its fist full month in operation


the Infrared Space Observatory (November 1995) was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the aim

to study astronomical objects through the infrared radiation that the objects emit and to discover, for example, brown

dwarfs (cool masses of gas smaller than the Sun) that make up much of the dark matter of the Galaxy


the Ulysses Probe (February 8, 1992) flew over the north and south

poles of Jupiter to enter a trajectory for reaching the south pole of the Sun


the Hubble Space Telescope (1990)


Voyager 2 approached Neptune (August 25, 1989)


the first of 24 satellites (February 14, 1989) that form the current GPS constellation

(Block II) was placed into orbit. The 52nd GPS satellite since the beginning in 1978

was launched November 6, 2004 aboard a Delta II rocket


the Soviet space station Mir (February 19, 1986 - March 23, 2001)


Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to leave our Solar System (1983)


the Mandelbrot set (1982)



Space Shuttle Columbia (1981-2003)


the Pioneer anomaly (1980)


Voyager 2 (August 20, 1977)



the Voyager 1 (September 5, 1977) spacecraft is the farthest human-made object
from Earth. It is an unmanned probe of the outer solar system and beyond.
It contains a message from mankind engraved on the golden record


Viking 1 (July 20, 1976) was the first spacecraft that returned color pictures of Mars to Earth



Pioneer 10 (March 2, 1972) was the first spacecraft to travel through the asteroid belt, and was
the first spacecraft to make direct observations of Jupiter. Pioneer 10 is heading in the direction of
the star Aldebaran in the constellation Taurus


Salyut 1 (1971) was the first space station



the U.S. Apollo program (July 20, 1969) sent twelve men to land on the Moon, the first of whom were
Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin in Apollo 11. The first men sent to the Moon were Frank Borman,
James Lovell and William Anders, in Apollo 8. Before and since that time, the Moon has been the target
of numerous landing and orbiting space probes, starting with the Soviet Luna 1 in 1959


Luna 1 (1959) was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon



Sputnik 1 (October 4, 1957) was the first artificial satellite to be
put into orbit. The launch led to the beginning of the space race



Space exploration (1946)


Georges Lemaître (1927) derived the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equations
from Albert Einstein's equations of general relativity and proposed, that the Universe
began with the "explosion" of a "primeval atom" - what was later called the Big Bang


the Great Debate (April 26, 1920)


motorization (1910-1970)


Minkowski space (1908)


Spacetime (1905)


Teleportation in science fiction (1877)



the International Meridian Conference (1884)


Riemannian geometry (1854)


non-Euclidean geometry (1826) was developed by Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky


Imperial units (1824)


railroadization (1820-1920)



the metric system (1791)


the Critique of Pure Reason (1781)


the sextant (1730)


the nutation of planet Earth was discovered (1728) by the English astronomer James Bradley


Edmund Halley (1718) announced his discovery that the fixed stars actually have their own motion called proper motion


the Board of Longitude (1714)


Isaac Newton's rotating bucket argument (1687)


Kepler's laws of planetary motion (1619)


the telescope (1608)


the microscope (1595)


the Mercator projection (1569)


Nicolaus Copernicus (1543) was an astronomer who provided the first modern

formulation of a heliocentric (sun-centered) theory of the solar system


the Age of Discovery (early 15th century - early 17th century)


Glasses first began to appear in common use in northern Italy (late 1280s)


the earliest record about the use of a compass in navigation (1117) was Zhu Yu's book "Pingzhou Ke Tan"
(Pingzhou Table Talks). Alexander Neckam has preserved to us the earliest European notices of the magnet
as a guide to seamen in his work De naturis rerum, 1190


the first recorded use of a corrective lens was by the emperor Nero (54)

who was known to watch the gladiatorial games using an emerald


the Dream of Scipio (51 bc)


celestial globes (55 bc)


the astrolabe


Eratosthenes calculated the circumference of the Earth to be 39,690 km (240 bc) today it is measured at 40,008 km


the armillary sphere (255 bc)


ancient weights and measures