the Human Genome Project (2000) announced having completed its task



genetically modified food



Dolly (1996-2003)


Genetic fingerprinting (1985)


Polymerase chain reaction (1983) was invented by Kary B. Mullis


Stanley P. Prusiner discovered proteins called prions (1982) which are linked to brain disorders in mammals. This discovery contradicted

long-held assumptions that only agents with DNA or RNA, such as viruses and bacteria, can replicate in the body and cause disease


Louise Brown (July 25, 1978)


in the first instance of genetic engineering (1978) Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer splice together fragments

of bacterial DNA and introduce this "recombinant" DNA into a strain of Escherichia coli bacteria


restriction enzymes (1978) were discovered by Werner Arber


Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene (1976)


reverse transcriptase (1970)


Ribosomes (1956) were first observed by George Palade



the helical structure of the DNA molecule (1953) was discovered by

James D. Watson and Francis Crick together with Rosalind Franklin


the Rh Factor (1937)


Griffith's experiment (1928)


the Mechanism of Mendelian Inheritance (1915)


Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen (1909) coined the word gene (using the Greek for "to give birth to")


the Hardy-Weinberg Rule (1908)


the term 'genetics' (1905) was coined by William Bateson


Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns (1900) rediscovered Mendel's work


germ plasm theory (1890s) was formulated by August Weismann



Gregor Mendel's Experiments on Plant Hybridization (1865)