Thomas Paine's Age of Reason (1794)



the Age of Enlightenment (1791-1815) in 1791 the French defined one meter to be equal

to 1/10 000 000th of the distance from the pole to the equator along the meridian through Paris



public museums (1793)



the Cult of Reason (November 10, 1793)



the French revolution (1789-1799)


feminism (1785)


An Answer To The Question: What Is Enlightenment? (1784)


 Gotthold Ephraim Lessing's Nathan der Weise (1779)



the American war of Independence (1775-1783)


the Encyclopædia Britannica (1771)



Sturm und Drang (1767-1785)


Rousseau's Discourse on Inequality (1754)


l’Encyclopédie (1751)



As Rousseau walked to Vincennes to visit Diderot in prison (1749) he read in the Mercure de France of an essay

competition sponsored by the Académie de Dijon, asking whether the development of the arts and sciences had

been morally beneficial. Rousseau claimed that this question caused him to have a moment of sudden inspiration by

the roadside, during which he perceived the principle of the natural goodness of humanity on which all his later

philosophical works were based. As a consequence of this, he answered the competition question in the negative, in his

1750 "Discourse on the Arts and Sciences", which won him first prize in the contest and gained him significant fame


the Celsius temperature scale (1742)


deism (1700)


Hobbes' Leviathan (1651)