Eugene Peterson (1932) author of "The Message", a contemporary paraphrase of the

Holy Bible from the original languages, "crafted to present its tone, rhythm, events, and

ideas in everyday language." It was written in order to recreate the spirit of the original

books of the New Testament, which were written in the street language of the day



Thomas C. Oden (1931) is an American Christian theologian associated with Drew University in New

Jersey. An ordained United Methodist Elder, he is also perhaps the "Father of the Paleo-Orthodox

movement" and arguably one of the most influential churchmen of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. He

has proven to be very important in the contemporary ecumenical movement and in Christian evangelical circles



Muhammed edh-Dhib (1931) was the young shepherd from the Ta'amireh

clans residing in Bethlehem, who discovered the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947



John Shelby Spong (1931)



Gustavo Gutiérrez (1928) is one of the founders of liberation theology



Hans Küng (1928) is an eminent Swiss theologian, and a prolific author. Since 1995 he has been President

of the Foundation for a Global Ethic (Stiftung Weltethos). Küng is a Roman Catholic, but the Vatican has

rescinded his authority to teach Catholic theology. In the late 1960s Küng became the first major Roman

Catholic theologian after the late 19th century Old Catholic Church schism to reject the doctrine of papal

infallibility, in particular in his book Infallible? An Inquiry



Pope Benedict XVI (1927)



J. I. Packer (1926) is a Christian theologian in the Calvinist/Reformed tradition. He currently serves

as the Board of Governors' Professor of Theology at Regent College in Vancouver, British Columbia.

He is considered to be one of the most important evangelical theologians of the late 20th century.

Packer also served as general editor of the English Standard Version of the Bible



John B. Cobb (1925) is an American United Methodist theologian who played a crucial role in

the development of process theology. He integrated Alfred North Whitehead's metaphysics into

Christianity, and applied it to issues of social justice



Norman Geisler (19??)



Karol Wojtyła (1920-2005) reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and

sovereign of Vatican City and of the Holy See for almost 27 years. In 1992 he

announced that the Catholic Church erred in condemning Galileo's work that proved

the work of Copernicus was valid, that the planets circle the Sun and not the Earth



Billy Graham (1918) is an American Christian evangelist who has preached the message of 

Christianity around the world, reaching live audiences of 210 million people in 185 countries. He has

led hundreds of thousands of people to make personal decisions to accept Jesus Christ into their lives,



Bernard Lonergan (1904-1984) author of Insight: A Study of Human Understanding (1957) and

Method in Theology (1973), which established what he called Generalized Empirical Method



Karl Rahner (1904-1984) was one of the most influential Roman Catholic theologians of the 20th century.

He was born in Freiburg, Germany, and died in Innsbruck, Austria. His theology influenced the Second

Vatican Council and is ground-breaking for a modern understanding of Catholic faith. Written near the end

of his life, Rahner's Foundations of Christian Faith (Grundkurs des Glaubens), is the most developed and

systematic of his work, which was for the most of his life done in theological essays



Georgia Harkness (1891-1974) was a Christian theologian in the Methodist tradition. Harkness has been

described as the first significant American female theologian and was important in the movement to gain

ordination for women in American Methodism. She was a leading figure in the modern ecumenical movement



Karl Barth (1886-1968) was one of the leading thinkers in the neo-orthodox movement



Rudolf Karl Bultmann (1884-1976) his "History of the Synoptic Tradition" is still highly regarded as

an essential tool for gospel research, even by scholars who reject his analyses of the conventional

rhetorical tropes or narrative units of which the Gospels are assembled, and the historically-oriented

principles called "form criticism," of which Bultmann has been the most influential exponent



Martin Buber (1878-1965) author of "I and Thou"



Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) As a young theologian his first major work,

by which he gained a great reputation, was The Quest of the Historical Jesus



Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) founded one of the first Bible Societies in the United

States, Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society in 1881, the People's Pulpit Association of New

York in 1909, and the International Bible Students Association of London in 1914



Desire Joseph Mercier (1851-1926) under the auspices of Pope Leo XIII,

he organized an institute for the study of the teachings of St. Thomas Aquinas



Ramakrishna (1836-1886) teacher of Advaita Vedanta Hinduism.

He preached that all religions lead to the same goal



Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) founded the Christian Science Church



Baha'u'llah (1817-1892) founder of the Bahá'í faith

which holds that all religions should be united



Joseph Smith (1805-1844) founder of the Latter Day Saint

movement, which developed into Mormonism



John Henry Newman (1801-1890) author of "the Grammar of Assent"


Christian Hermann Weisse (1801-1866) was a German Protestant religious philosopher. He developed (along with Fichte)

 a new speculative theism and was the first theologian to propose the two-source hypothesis (1838), which is still held by

a majority of biblical scholars today. In the two-source hypothesis, the Gospel of Mark was the first gospel to be written

and was one of two sources to the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke, the other source being the Q document, a lost

collection of Jesus's sayings



Antonio Rosmini Serbati (1797-1855) founded the the Institute of the Brethren of Charity,



Charles Grandison Finney (1792-1875) was a major leader

of the Second Great Awakening in America



George Whitefield (1774-1770) was one of the leaders of the Methodist movement,

is most famous for his preaching in the Great Awakening movement of Christian revivals



Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834) Reden über die Religion, Monologe



Adam Clarke (1762-1832) is chiefly remembered for writing a commentary on the Bible which

took him forty years to compile and which was a primary Methodist theological resource for two centuries



John Fletcher (1729-1785) was one of Methodism's first great theologians



John Wesley (1703-1791) was the founder of the Methodist denomination of Protestant Christianity



Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) is known as one of the

greatest and most profound American evangelical theologians



Rabbi Israel ben Eliezer (1698-1760) was the founder

of the spiritual movement known as Hasidic Judaism



Joseph Butler (1692-1752) refuted psychological hedonism,

contributed to deontological ethics,



Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772)


Samuel Clarke (1675-1729)



Jacob Amman (1656-1730) gave the Amish movement its name



Kateri Tekakwitha (1656-1680) is honored by the Catholic Church as the patroness of ecology



Thomas Burnet (1635-1715) theologian and writer on cosmogony



Philipp Jakob Spener (1635-1705) published two chief works, Pia desideria and Allgemeine

Gottesgelehrtheit, and began that form of pastoral work which resulted in the movement called Pietism


Miguel de Molinos (1628-1697)


John Bunyan (1628-1688)



George Fox (1624-1691) was an English Dissenter and the founder of

the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers



Francis Turretin (1623-1687) was a defender of the Calvinistic

orthodoxy represented by the Synod of Dort



John Owen (1616-1683) was an English Nonconformist church leader. In 1647 he again attacked the

Arminians in The Death of Death in the Death of Christ, which drew him into long debate with Richard Baxter



Richard Baxter (1615-1691) was an English Puritan church leader



Cornelis Jansen (1585-1638)



Bishop James Usher (1581-1656) calculated from dates given in the old testament

that the earth was created on the evening preceding October 23, 4004 bc in his work

Annales veteris testamenti, a prima mundi origine deducti



Jakob Boehme (1575-1624) was a Christian mystic



James Arminius (1560-1609) is best known as the founder of the anti-Calvinistic school in

Protestant theology, and thereby lent his name to the antithetical theology to Calvinism - Arminianism



Anton Praetorius (1560-1613) was a protestant pastor and fighter against the persecution of witches



Richard Hooker (1554-1600) is the co-founder

(with Thomas Cranmer) of Anglican theological thought



Matteo Ricci (1552-1610)



St John of the Cross (1542-1591) renowned for his cooperation with

Saint Theresa of Avila in the reformation of the Carmelite order



Pierre Charron (1541-1603)



Luis de Molina (1535-1600) jesuit theologican, he developed the doctrine of

middle knowledge (i.e. God's knowledge of conditional future contingent events)


Isaac Luria (1534-1572)


Francisco Toletus (1532-1596) became the first jesuit cardinal,


Domingo Banez (1528-1604) theologian and philosopher, coauthor of a

theological  system based on the doctrine of St. Thomas Aquinas called Banezianism


Bartolomeo Medina (1527-1580) dominican theologian,



Theodore Beza (1519-1605) participant in the Protestant Reformation,

succeeded Calvin in the great institution of learning at Geneva which he had founded



Saint Teresa of Avila (1515-1582) was a Spanish Roman Catholic mystic and monastic reformer



John Knox (1513-1572) was a Scottish religious reformer who played the 

lead part in reforming the Church in Scotland in a Presbyterian manner



John Calvin (1509-1564) was a prominent Christian theologian during the Protestant

Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism



Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575) Swiss religious reformer


Obbe Philips (1500-1568) was one of the early founders of Dutch

Anabaptism. Menno Simons was ordained by him around 1537


Alexander Alesius (1500-1565)



Felix Manz (1498-1527)


Conrad Grebel (1498-1526)



Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560) was an associate of

Martin Luther and writer of the Protestant Reformation



Menno Simons (1496-1561) was an Anabaptist religious leader from the province of

Fryslân (today Netherlands and Germany). His followers became known as Mennonites


Domingo de Soto (1494-1560) domonican theologian,

adopted positions of Aquinas and Duns Scotus,



Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) was the principal founder and first Superior General of the

Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Roman Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope



Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556) introduced the Book of Common Prayer, a modernized version of which

is still used today, and in general, led the Church of England in a more Protestant direction



Johannes Eck (1486-1543) was a defender of Catholicism during the Protestant Reformation.

It was Eck who argued that the beliefs of Martin Luther and John Huss were similar



Gauranga (1486-1533) incarnation of Lord Krishna


Johannes Bugenhagen (1485-1558)



Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) was the leader of the Swiss Reformation



Martin Luther (1483-1546) augustinian monk whose teachings inspired the Protestant

Reformation. He proclaimed justification by faith alone and the priesthood of all believers



Vallabha (1479-1531)



Thomas Cajetan (1469-1534) as entrusted the task of examining and testing the teachings of Luther



Guru Nanak (1469-1538) founder of the Sikh religion,



Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464) was noted for his deeply mystical

writings about Christianity, particularly the nature of the Trinity



Thomas ŕ Kempis (1380-1471) was a medieval Christian monk and author of

Imitation of Christ, one of the most well-known Christian books on devotion



Jan Hus (1369-1415) initiated a religious movement based on the

ideas of John Wyclif. His followers became known as Hussites



Jean de Gerson (1363-1429) invented conciliarism,

the view that the church is a political society


Pierre d'Ailly (1350-1420) ockhamist, his theology

anticipated fideism, his ethics protestantism



Julian of Norwich (1342-1416) her major work "Sixteen Revelations of Divine Love"

is believed to be the first book written by a woman in the English language


Geert Groote (1340-1384) founder of the Brethren of the Common Life


William of Alnwick (1333) franciscan theologican,



John Wyclif (1330-1384) theologian,



Heinrich Seuse (1295-1366)


Nicholas of Autrecourt (1295-1369) theologian,


Adam de Wodeham (1295-1358) franciscan theologian,

wrote the prologue to Ockham's Summa logicae,




Scotus Johannes Duns (1265-1308) was a theologian and philosopher. Some may argue that during his

tenure at Oxford, the notion of what differentiates theology from philosophy and science began in earnest.

Perhaps the most influential point of Duns Scotus' theology was his defense of the Immaculate Conception of Mary



Meister Eckhart (1260-1328) was one of the most influential Christian Neoplatonists


Peter John Olivi (1247-1298) theologian,



Moses de Leon (1240-1305) Jewish Kabbalist and author of the Sefer 

ha-Zohar (Book of Splendour), the most important work of Jewish mysticism



Raymond Lull (1232-1316) christian mystic,



Jacobus de Voragine (1230-1298) author of the Golden Legend, one of the most popular religious works

of the middle ages, a collection of the legendary lives of the greater saints of the medieval church



Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) gave birth to the Thomistic school of philosophy, which was long

the primary philosophical approach of the Roman Catholic Church. He is considered by the

Catholic church to be its greatest theologian and one of the thirty-three Doctors of the Church



Saint Bonaventure (1221-1271) beheld the winged seraph that had also

appeared to Francis of Assisi, he also outlines a seven-stage spiritual journey,



Robert Kilwardby (1215-1279) archbishop of Canterbury,



Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi (1207-1273)



Albertus Magnus (1200-1280) was a Dominican friar who became famous for his universal knowledge and advocacy

for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. He is considered to be the greatest German philosopher and theologian

of the Middle Ages. He was the first medieval scholar to apply Aristotle's philosophy to Christian thought at the time


Beatrice of Nazareth (1200-1268) had a vision

of the Holy Trinity, wrote Seven Modes of Sacred Love


Nahmanides (1194-1270)



Saint Francis of Assisi (1181-1226) founder of the franciscan order of friars



Cäsarius von Heisterbach (1180-1240) Cistercian monk, author of the Dialogue on Miracles



Dominic de Guzman (1170-1221)



Hildegard von Bingen (1098-1191) German

monastic leader, mystic, author, and composer of music


Richard of St. Victor (d. 1173)



Peter Lombard (1095-1160)



Bernard of Clairvaux (1090-1153) was the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order,

taught that in mystical union one's will and God's will come into complete conformity,



Saint Anselm (1033-1109) held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury, is called the founder

of Scholasticism, but is most famous as the inventor of the ontological argument for the existence of God



Ramanuja (1017-1137) founded the Visistadvita tradition, which

provides the theoretical basis for Bhakti devotional Hinduism,



Pietro Damiani (1007-1072)



Nammalvar (880-930)



Parsvanatha (872-772) incarnation of Indra



Johannes Scotus Eriugena (810-877) taught that evil is strictly (and simply) nothing (the absence of something),

was a theologian and philosopher. Some may argue that during his tenure at Oxford, the notion 

of what differentiates theology from philosophy and science began in earnest. He was one of the most 

important Franciscan theologians and was the founder of Scotism, a special form of Scholasticism. Perhaps

the most influential point of Duns Scotus' theology was his defense of the Immaculate Conception of Mary



Shankara (788-820) founded Advaita Vedanta Hinduism,


Theodulf of Orléans (760-821) was bishop of Orleans, and became the foremost

 councilor to Charlemagne on theological matters after the death of Alcuin



Alcuin of York (735-804) monk from England who became

Charlemagne's leading advisor on ecclesiastical and educational affairs



John of Damascus (675-750) theologian,



the Venerable Bede (673-735) was a biblical scholar,

and historian ("Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum")



Isidore of Seville (560-636)



Mohammed (570-632) La ilaha illa Allah, Mohammed rasul Allah



Saint Columbanus (543-615) founded several monasteries in the Frankish kingdoms,

most notably Luxeuil in 590, spreading among the Franks a Celtic monastic rule



Saint Gregory I (540-604) pope, summarized christian theology,



Gregory of Tours (539-594) author of the

Historia Francorum and of books on miracles



Saint Columba (521-597) was an Irish missionary monk who helped

 re-introduce Christianity to Scotland and the north of England



Saint Benedict of Nursia (480-547)



Saint Patrick (4??-493)


Peter the Iberian (411-491)


Nemesius of Emesa (fl. 400) his work "De natura hominis" can

be said to be the first christian-philosophical anthropology



Saint Augustine (354-430) is the pre-eminent Doctor of the Church according to Roman

Catholicism, he held that introspection leads to discovering the created hierarchies by which

to ascend to God, time serves as the narrative structure for the creation's return to God,



Jerome (347-420) is best known as the translator of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew into Latin.

Jerome's edition, the Vulgate, is still the official biblical text of the Roman Catholic Church



Saint Ambrose (340-397) theologican, neoplatonist,



Gregory of Nyssa (330-395) tried to reconcile Platonism with Christianity,

he was known with his brother Basil the Great and Basil's best friend

Gregory of Nazianzus as the Cappadocian Fathers



Saint Basil (329-379) bishop of Caesarea, Moralia and Regulae


Martin of Tours (316-397)



Athanasius (296-373) roman catholics have declared him one of the 33 doctors of the church



Saint Sebastian (288) christian martyr



Eusebius of Caesarea (275-339)



Anthony the Great (251-356)



Saint Nicholas of Myra (245-326) national saint

of Russia and Greece, gave alms anonymously



Mani (216-277)


Saint Laurence (210-258) one of the seven deacons of Rome, where he was martyred



Origen (184-254) his writings are important as the first serious intellectual attempt to describe Christianity,

applied the Platonist doctrine of apokatastasis (Greek for "restoration to the original condition") to Christianity



Tertullian (155-240)



Clement of Alexandria (150 -215) became the colleague of Pantaenus, the head of the

catechetical school of Alexandria, and finally succeeded him in the direction of the school


Montanus (150-210) founder of Montanism, announced a final

age of prophecy, gained a convert in Tertullian,


Athenagoras (133-190) Christian apologist, author of "Embassy for

the Christians" and a "Treatise on the Resurrection"



Irenaeus (120-203) the Catholic Church considers him a Father of the Church. He

was  a disciple of Polycarp, who himself was a disciple of John the Evangelist



Justin Martyr (110-165) was an early Christian apologist



Marcion (110-160) advocated an ascetic Christianity with parallels in gnosticism, Marcion's teaching, known

as Marcionism, was that Jesus revealed to the world a hitherto unknown god, who was different from the God of

the Hebrew Bible. According to Marcion, the god of the Hebrew Bible was inconstant, jealous, wrathful, and legalistic


Valentinius (100-160) gnostic



Polycarp (70-160) Polycarp was a companion of Papias another "hearer of John". Polycarp's

famous pupil was Irenaeus, for whom the memory of Polycarp was a link to the apostolic past



Saint Jude, aka Thaddaeus ()



Judas Iscariot ()



Simon the Canaanite ()



Saint Thomas ()



Saint Matthew ()



Saint Nathanael () identified with Bartholomew, According to scripture, Bartholomew was one of the disciples to whom

Jesus appeared at the Sea of Tiberias after the resurrection (John 21:2). He also witnessed the ascension. Tradition has it

that after the ascension, Bartholomew went on a missionary tour to India, where he left behind a copy of the Gospel of Matthew



Saint Philip from Bathesda () The Gospel of John states (1:43) that he was called by Jesus to be

his follower; that he introduced Nathanael (sometimes identified with Bartholomew) to Jesus



Saint James the Less (-62)



Saint James the Great (-42) brother of John



John the Apostle () as first a disciple of John the Baptist, and later one of the twelve

 disciples of Jesus, St. John the Apostle, is the disciple "whom Jesus loved"



Paul (3-67) made the first great efforts through his epistles to gentile communities to show that

the God of Abraham is for all people, rather than for Jews only, was not an apostle



Saint Simon called Peter (5bc-67ad) first pope of the Christian church



Saint Andrew (-60) Peter's brother, a Bathesda fisherman, disciple of John the Baptist, was the first to follow Jesus,

Eusebius quotes Origen as saying Andrew preached in Asia Minor and in Scythia, along the Black Sea as far as

 the Volga. Hence he became a patron saint of Romania and Russia



Jesus Christ (6bc-32ad) added "love thy neighbor like yourself"

as the eleventh commandment



Saint John the Baptist (6bc-30ad) baptized Jesus of Nazareth



the virgin Mary ()



Philo of Alexandria (20bc-50ad)



Joseph ()



Mahavira (599-527 bc) founder of Janism



Vyasa (600-500 bc) author of the Bhagavad Gita

which is part of the Mahabharata,



Ezekiel (622-570 bc) performed a resurrection



Daniel (623-538 bc) interpreted dreams and

was delivered from the lion's den



Spitama Zarathustra (628-551 bc) Zoroastrianism was

the national religion of ancient Iran



Jeremiah (650 bc) is considered by modern scholars to have written

or redacted much of the Old Testament as we have it today



Isaiah (740-681 bc) prophet of the new heaven and earth



Krishna (900 bc) all attractive supreme personality of godhead



Elijah (900 bc) herald of the messiah, his mission was

to restore exclusive loyalty to God



David (1085-965 bc) defeated Goliath,



Lord Rishabha (1??? bc) is considered the first Tirthankar of Jainism



Moses (1526-1406 bc) received the ten

commandments on Mount Sinai from God



Abraham (1991-1816 bc) migrated with the Canaans to Egypt,



Noah (2944-1994 bc) built the ark,



Enoch (3284-3017 bc) son of Jared, grandson of Mahalalel, great grandson of Kenan, great great

grandson of Enosh, great great great grandson of Seth and great great great great grandson of Adam