Justus Lipsius' De Constantia (1584)


the Renaissance neo-Stoic revival


Marcus Aurelius' Meditations (180)


the Enchiridion of Epictetus (135)


Seneca's Dialogues (40)


the Roman Late Stoa


Posidonius (95 bc) established himself in Rhodes


Panaetius (141 bc) introduced Rome to Stoic doctrines and Greek philosophy


the Middle Stoa


Chrysippus (232 bc) was the third head of the school


Cleanthes (263 bc) became the second head of the Stoic school



the Painted Porch (stoa poikile), erected during the 3rd century bc, was located on the north side of

the Ancient Agora of Athens, and was where Zeno of Citium started to teach taught Stoicism in 291 bc


the Old Stoa


Zeno of Citium studied logic with Stilpo and Diodorus Cronus of the Megarian school of philosophy