Tariq Said Ramadan (1962)



Cornel West (1953)



Neil Postman (1931-2003) author of "Amusing Ourselves to Death"



Immanuel Wallerstein (1930)



Pierre Bourdieu (1930-2002)



Amitai Etzioni (1929) famous for his work on communitarianism: a philosophy of

global governance based on the principles of the Kibbutz movement in which he was brought up



Ralf Dahrendorf (1929)



Jean Baudrillard (1929)



Niklas Luhmann (1927-1998)



Michel Foucault (1926-1984) called himself a historian of thought, held that

individuals are controlled by their own knowledge as self forming subjects


Michel de Certeau (1925-1986)



Jean Francois Lyotard (1924-1998) defined postmodernism,



Louis Althusser (1918-1990)



Charles Wright Mills (1916-1962) The Power Elite



Roland Barthes (1915-1980) post structuralist literary critic and essayist,



Marshall McLuhan (1911-1980) famous for coining 

the phrase "The medium is the message"



Robert King Merton (1910-2003) best known for having coined the phrases

"self-fulfilling prophecy", "role model" and "unintended consequences"



Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno (1903-1969)


Talcott Parsons (1902-1979)



Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979)



Georges Bataille (1897-1962) 



Max Horkheimer (1895-1973)



Karl Mannheim (1893-1947)



Walter Benjamin (1892-1940)



Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937)



Georg Lukacs (1885-1971)



Florian Znaniecki (1882-1958)



Otto Neurath (1882-1945)



Oswald Spengler (1880-1936) author of "Prussianism and Socialism"

as well as "The Decline of the West" which argues that the development

of civilizations follows a recognizable cyclical pattern



William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (1868-1963)



Grigorij Jefimowitsch Rasputin (1865-1916) was a Russian 

mystic who had influence on Russia's Romanov dynasty



Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (1864-1929)



Max Weber (1864-1920)



Georg Simmel (1858-1918)



Émile Durkheim (1858-1917)



Georgy Valentinovich Plekhanov (1856-1918) father of russian marxism,



Ferdinand Tönnies (1855-1936)



Karl Kautsky (1854-1938)



Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932)



Georges Sorel (1847-1922) social activist, reflections on violence, introduced 

myth rather than reason as the correct way to interpret social totality


Gabriel Tarde (1843-1904)



Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin (1842-1921) was one of Russia's foremost anarchists and one of the first

advocates of what he called "anarchist communism", his main work is entitled "Mutual Aid: A Factor in Evolution"


Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911)



Pierre Laffitte (1823-1903) on the schism of the Positivist body which followed Comte's death, he was

recognized as head of the section which accepted the full Comtian doctrine; the other section adhering

to Littre, rejected the religion of humanity as inconsistent with the materialism of Comte's earlier period



Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)



Karl Marx (1818-1883)



Mikhail Bakunin (1814-1876) wrote the first Russian translation of

the Communist Manifesto, founded the Social Democratic Alliance



Aleksey Khomyakov (1804-1860)



Harriet Martineau (1802-1876)



Auguste Comte (1798-1855)



Saint Simon (1760-1825)



Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) author of "A Vindication of the Rights of Woman"


Marquis de Condorcet (1743-1794)


Adam Ferguson (1723-1816)


Bernard de Mandeville (1670-1733)



Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406)


Abu Bakr Ibn Tufayl (1105-1186)


Abu Nasr al Farabi (870-950)