L.T.F. Gamut (1949)



Susan Haack (1945) Deviant Logic, Philosophy of Logics



Trudy Govier (1944) A Practical Study of Argument


Jon Barwise (1942-2000) "The Situation in Logic," "Language, Proof and Logic"



David K Lewis (1941-2001) Parts of Classes



George Boolos (1940-1996) "Logic, Logic, and Logic,"

"The Logic of Provability," "Computability and Logic"



Saul Aaron Kripke (1940) A Completeness Theorem in Modal Logic, Semantical Considerations on Modal Logic


Dag Prawitz (1936) is best known for his work on proof theory and the foundations of natural deduction



Jerry Fodor (1935)


Dana Scott (1932)


Nuel Belnap (1930)


Newton da Costa (1929) On the theory of inconsistent formal systems,

Paraconsistent logic, Is there a Zande Logic?, On Jaskowski's Discussive Logic



Jaakko Hintikka (1929) The Logic of Epistemology and the Epistemology of Logic,

Analyses of Aristotle, Inquiry as Inquiry: A Logic of Scientific Discovery,
Language, Truth and Logic in Mathematics


Howard Kahane (1928-2001) Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric: The Use of Reason in Everyday Life



Michael A. E. Dummett (1925) The Logical Basis of Metaphysics, Origins of Analytical Philosophy



Ruth Barcan Marcus (1921) "The Logical Enterprise,"

"Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science"


Lotfi Zadeh (1921) showed that fuzzy logic is a generalisation of classical logic



P. F. Strawson (1919) Introduction to Logical Theory



Peter Geach (1916)



G. H. von Wright (1916) The Logical Problem of

Induction, An Essay in Modal Logic, Deontic Logic


Paul Lorenzen (1915-1995) Normative Logic and Ethics, Logical Propaedeutic


Arthur Prior (1914-1969) Formal Logic



Alan Turing (1912-1954)



Stephen Cole Kleene (1909-1994) Mathematical Logic



Gerhard Gentzen (1909-1945)



Willard van Orman Quine (1908-2000) Mathematical Logic, Elementary Logic, Methods of Logic


Evert Willem Beth (1908-1964) Formal Methods: An introduction to

symbolic logic and to the study of effective operations in arithmetic and logic


J. Barkley Rosser (1907-1989) proved a stronger version of Gödel's first incompleteness theorem



Kurt Gödel (1906-1978) Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze

der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme


C. A. Meredith (1904-1976)


Adolf Lindenbaum (1904-1941)



Alonzo Church (1903-1995) proved that Peano arithmetic and first order

logic are undecidable. The latter result is known as Church's theorem



John von Neumann (1903-1957)



Frank Plumpton Ramsey (1903-1930) On a problem of formal logic


Józef Maria Bocheński (1902-1995)



Karl Popper (1902-1994) Logik der Forschung



Ernest Nagel (1901-1985) The Structure of Science: Problems in the Logic of Scientific

Explanation, An Introduction to Logic and Scientific Method, Logic without Metaphysics



Alfred Tarski (1901-1983) Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics


Gotthard Günther (1900-1984) Die philosophische Idee einer nicht-Aristotelischen Logik



Haskell Curry (1900-1982) Combinatory Logic, Foundations of Mathematical Logic


Arend Heyting (1898-1980) developed intuitionistic logic



Emil Leon Post (1897-1954) proved in his Columbia University doctoral thesis, among other things, that the propositional

 calculus of Principia Mathematica was complete: all tautologies are theorems, given the Principia axioms and a rule of

 uniform substitution. Van Heijenoort's (1966) source book on mathematical logic reprinted Post's classic article setting out

 this result. This thesis also devised truth tables independently of Wittgenstein and Charles Peirce and put them to good

 mathematical use



Wilhelm Ackermann (1896-1962) Grundzüge der theoretischen Logik



Susanne Langer (1895-1985) An Introduction to Symbolic Logic


Jean George Pierre Nicod (1893-1924)



Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970) Abriss der Logistik



Hans Reichenbach (1891-1953) Elements of symbolic logic



Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (1890-1963) Pragmatic Logic



Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus



Moses Schönfinkel (1889-1942) invented combinatory logic independently of, and

a little earlier than, Haskell Curry, "Über die Bausteine der mathematischen Logik"



Paul Bernays (1888-1977) mathematical logican


Thoralf Skolem (1887-1963) mathematical logican



Tadeusz Kotarbinski (1886-1981) Leçons sur l'histoire de la logique



Leon Chwistek (1884-1944)


Heinrich Scholz (1884-1956)



Clarence Irving Lewis (1883-1964) A Survey of Symbolic Logic, Symbolic Logic


Henry Maurice Sheffer (1882-1964)



Luitzgen Egbertus Jan Brouwer (1881-1966) Beweis des Jordanschen Satzes für N Dimensionen



Ernst Mally (1879-1944) was one of the founders of Deontic logic



Jan Łukasiewicz (1878-1956) worked on multi-valued logics, including his own three-valued propositional

calculus, the first non-classical logical calculus. He is responsible for one of the most elegant axiomatizations

of classical propositional logic; it has just three axioms and is one of the most used axiomatizations today



Leopold Löwenheim (1878-1957) Über Möglichkeiten im Relativkalkül



Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) Principia Mathematica,

Introduction to mathematical philosophy



Fyodor Shcherbatskoy (1866-1942) Theory of Knowledge and Logic According to the Later Buddhists



Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938) established the Lwów-Warsaw 

School of logic and became the "father of Polish logic"



David Hilbert (1862-1943) Grundzüge der theoretischen Logik



Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) Principia Mathematica



Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) Logische Untersuchungen, Formale und

transzendentale Logik. Versuch einer Kritik der logischen Vernunft


William Ernest Johnson (1858-1931) Logic



Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932) Applicazioni Geometriche del Calcolo Infinitesimale



Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) invented the electronic AND logic gate circuit



Josiah Royce (1855-1916) Principles of Logic


John Cook Wilson (1849-1915)



Gottlob Frege (1848-1925) Begriffsschrift, Grundgesetze der Arithmetik



Wilhelm Windelband (1848-1915) Theories in Logic



F. H. Bradley (1846-1924)



Georg Cantor (1845-1918) invented set theory



Ernst Schröder (1841-1902) his "Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik" prepared the way for the

emergence of mathematical logic as a separate discipline in the twentieth century by systematizing the

various systems of formal logic of the day



Charles S. Peirce (1839-1914) Studies in Logic


Hugh MacColl (1837-1909) published a four-part article setting out the first known variant of the

propositional calculus, calling it the "calculus of equivalent statements", anteceding Frege's Begriffschrifft



John Venn (1834-1923) introduced the Venn diagrams in  his work "Symbolic Logic."

"The Logic of Chance" and "The Principles of Empirical Logic" completed his logical writings



Lewis Carroll (1832-1898) Symbolic Logic



Christoph von Sigwart (1830-1894) Logik



Henry Longueville Mansel (1820-1871) Prolegomena logica: an

Inquiry into the Psychological Character of Logical Processes


Karl von Prantl (1820-1888) Geschichte der Logik im Abendland


Friedrich Harms (1819-1880) "Geschichte der Logik," "Logik"



Rudolf Hermann Lotze (1817-1881) Logik



George Boole (1815-1864) "Mathematical Analysis of Logic," "An Investigation of the Laws

of Thought, on which are founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities"



Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871) Formal Logic, De Morgan's laws



Hermann Ulrici (1806-1884) Über Princip u. Methode der Hegelschen

Philosophie, Grundprincip der Philosophie, System der Logik



John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) A System of Logic



Jules Barthélemy-Saint-Hilaire (1805-1895) De la Logique d’Aristote



Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg (1802-1872) Elementa inices Aristoteticae, Erlauterungen zu den

Elementen der Aristotelischen Logik, Logische Untersuchungen, Die logische Frage in Hegels System



Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus (1796-1862)


William Whewell (1794-1866) History of the Inductive Sciences, from the Earliest to the Present Time



Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason


William Hamilton (1788-1856) Lectures on Logic



Bernard Bolzano (1781-1848) The Paradoxes of the Infinite



Jakob Friedrich Fries (1773-1843) System der Logik



Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) Science of Logic


Christoph Gottfried Bardili (1761-1808) Grundriss der ersten Logik



Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) The False Subtlety of the Four Syllogistic Figures



Etienne Bonnot de Condillac (1714-1780) Logique



Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746) Compendium of Logic



Hermann Samuel Reimarus (1694-1768) Vernunftlehre als Anweisung zum richtigen Gebrauche der Vernunft



Giambattista Vico (1668-1744) New Science



Christian Wolff (1679-1754) Philosophia rationalis, sive logica



Isaac Watts (1674-1748) Logick: Or, the Right Use of Reason


Gershom Carmichael (1672-1729) Breviuscula Introductio ad Logicam



Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) proposed an alphabet of human thought


Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669)


Johannes Clauberg (1622-1665) Logica vetus et nova



Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694) "La logique, ou l'art de penser" is commonly known as the Port-Royal Logic



René Descartes (1596-1650) resolved the omnipotence paradox by

proposing that an omnipotent being can do the logically impossible



Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655) Syntagma philosophicum



Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Novum Organum



Francisco Suarez (1548-1617) Metaphysical Disputations



Jacopo Zabarella (1532-1589) Opera Logica



Petrus Ramus (1515-1572) Quecumque ab Aristotele dicat essent, commentita esse


John Mair (1467-1550) Lectures in logic, Quaestiones logicales



Rodolphus Agricola (1443-1485) De inventione dialectica


Paul of Venice (1368-1429) Logica parva et logica magna



Marsilius of Inghen (1330-1396)


Albert of Saxony (1316-1390) Perutilis logica, Quaestiones logicales, Quaestiones on the Ars Vetus



Jean Buridan (1300-1358) Compendium Logicae, Summa de Dialecticâ, Buridan's ass



William of Ockham (1285-1349) Ockham's Razor, Summa logicae


Walter Burley (1275-1344)



John Duns Scotus (1266-1308)


Giles of Rome (1243-1316)



Robert Kilwardby (1215-1279)



Roger Bacon (1214-1293) Opus Majus



Peter of Spain (1205-1277) Scholastic Logic


William of Sherwood (1190-1249) was the author of two books which were an important influence on the development of

Scholastic logic: Introductiones in Logicam (Introduction to Logic), and Syncategoremata. These are the first known works

to deal in a systematic way with what is now called supposition theory, known in William's time as the logica moderna


Adam Parvipontanus (d. 1181) Ars disserendi



Robert Grosseteste (1168-1253)


Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani (12th century)



Averroës (1126-1198) was one of the first philosophers to propose the omnipotence paradox


John of Salisbury (1120-1180) Metalogicon



Pierre Abélard (1079-1142)


Gilbert de la Porrée (1070-1154) De sex principiis



Adelard of Bath (1070-1145)



Abu Hamid al Ghazali (1058-1111) composed three works on Aristotelian logic,

Mi'yar al-'ilm (The Standard Measure of Knowledge), Mihakk al-nazar f'l-mantiq

(The Touchstone of Proof in Logic) and al-Qistas al-mustaqim (The Just Balance)



Abu Nasr al Farabi (870-950)



Dharmakirti (circa 7th century) Seven Treatises on Valid Cognition



Dignaga (5th century) Treatise on the Correct Principles of Logic



Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (480-525)



Porphyry (232-304) Introduction to Categories



Cicero (106-43)


Aksapada Gautama (2nd century bc) was a logician who authored the Nyaya

Sutras, considered the foundation of the Nyaya school of Hinduism



Posidonius (153-51 bc) compared the three categories of Stoic philosophy to a living being, with physics the meat and

 blood, logic the bones and tendons which held the organism together, and ethics – the most important part – the soul



Chrysippus (279-207 bc) systematized Stoicism into ethics, logic and physics


Kung sun Lung Tzu (300 bc) was a noted member of the Logicians

school of Chinese philosophy. Said that "A white horse is not a horse"



Zeno of Citium (336-264 bc) introduced the term "logic" to replace Aristotle`s term "analytic"


Philo of Megara (4th cent. bc)


Diodorus Cronus (340-280 bc)



Theophrastus (372-287 bc)


Eubulides of Miletus (375-300 bc) formulated the liar and the Sorites paradox



Aristotle (384-322 bc) intoduced syllogisms and modal logic



Euclides of Megara (430-360 bc)



the Sophists



Zeno of Elea (490-430 bc) was called by Aristotle the inventor of

dialectic, he is best known for his space and motion paradoxes



Parmenides (510-450 bc)



Heraclitus (535-475 bc)



Epimenides (6th century bc) was a Cretan who made one immortal statement: "All Cretans are liars."