the Haber-Bosch process (1910)



the Second Industrial Revolution (1871-1914) was about the development of heavy industries such as steel,

chemicals, and petroleum. Its power sources were electricity, the internal combustion engine, and the gas turbine



Parkesine (1862) is the trademark for the first man-made plastic



the shuttle windings for the armature of the electric generator (1857) were designed by Werner von Siemens.

This was a major step toward the development of electrical generators without permanent magnets


the Siemens regenerative furnace (1856)



the Bessemer process (1855) for producing inexpensive steel in a blast furnace was introduced by Henry Bessemer



wood pulp (1848) for papermaking was invented by Friedrich Gottlob Keller. Further

experimentation by American chemist C.B. Tilghman and Swedish inventor C.F. Dahl

enabled the manufacture of wood pulp using chemicals to break down the fibres



the Chicago Board of Trade (1848) is the world's oldest futures and options exchange



the Communist Manifesto was first published on (February 21, 1848)



der Weberaufstand (1844)



the selfactor (1825) was patented by Richard Roberts



the Stirling engine (1816) was patented after the Scottish clergyman Rev. Robert
Stirling made significant improvements to earlier designs by Sir George Caley



the Davy lamp (1815)



the first commerically successful steam locomotive (August 12, 1812) was built by John Blenkinsop, owner of

the Middleton Colliery, who teamed up with Matthew Murray to build a steam-operated railway to transport

coal about 3 miles to Leeds. It could haul as many as 30 loaded coal cars at a speed of 3 mph


the Luddite movement (1811-1817)


the first canning factory (1804) was opened following the invention of the process by Nicholas Appert



Gas obtained from carbonized coal, known as town gas (1800s) became the

primary fuel for illuminating streets and houses throughout much of Europe



a continuous paper making machine (1799) was invented by Nicholas Louis Robert



the cotton gin (1793) was built by Eli Whitney



Samuel Slater (1793) began the American Industrial Revolution

with the construction of the first successful textile mill



outside of 68 Wall Street (May 17, 1792) the Buttonwood Agreement,

which established the NYSE, was signed by twenty-four stock brokers



the high-pressure steam engine (1790s) was improved by Oliver Evans



the Watt Governor (1788)



the power loom (1785) was built by Edmund Cartwright



the puddling furnace (1784) was patented by Henry Cort



the Smethwick engine (May 1779) was built by James Watt and Matthew Boulton



the spinning mule (1778) was developed by Samuel Crompton, combining the spinning jenny with Richard Arkwright's spinning frame



Honoré Blanc began producing some of the first firearms with interchangeable parts (1778) Thomas Jefferson

saw a demonstration in 1785 and took the idea back to the United States, where Eli Whitney and other

inventors moved the concept forward when he introduced the American System of manufacturing in 1799



Richard Arkwright installed the water frame (1771) in his cotton mill at Cromford,
on the River Derwent, creating one of the first factories that were specifically built to
house machinery, rather than just bringing workers together



the Watt steam engine (1765)



the spinning jenny (1764) was invented by James Hargreaves



Industrial Revolution (1760 - present)



the lead chamber process (1746) was invented by John Roebuck



the flying shuttle (1733) was invented by John Kay



the steam engine (1712) was reinvented by Thomas Newcomen



Abraham Darby (1709) set up a coke-fired blast furnace to produce cast iron. The ensuing

availability of inexpensive iron was one of the factors leading to the European industrial revolution


F. Hawksbee (1709) improved the design of Newtons electrostatic generator

by using a metal chain to capture the electricity generated by friction



Thomas Savery patented “the Miner’s Friend” (1698) a machine that pumped out

water from coal mines; it became the first practical machine powered by steam



French physicist Denis Papin, with the help of Gottfried Leibniz (1687) built a working model of a steam engine and a paddle steam boat



Hugh Platt discoverd coke (1603) a charcoal-like substance produced by heating coal