God, Gott, Dieu, Dios, Dio, Deus, Gud, Jumala, Jah, Θεός, Бог, לילא , خالق, भगवान,


Brahma - creator of the universe, the first cause of existence

Vishnu - preserver, giver of sustenance

Shiva - destroyer




divine attributes


omnipotence - maximal power, according to Descartes even the power to do the logically impossible

omniscience - unlimited knowledge, knowledge of all true propositions as well as middle knowledge

omnibenevolence - complete desire for good

omnipresence - similar presence in all space of the universe

aseity - complete independence

simplicity - no distinction between God and the divine essence, omniscience and omnipotence are identical

infinity - the divine is not limited by our universe

sovereignty - God is the absolute authority in the universe

transcendency - the divine is above and beyond its creation

immutability - there is never a change in God

eternity - from the divine perspective everything, including past and future, is present at once





the cosmological argument (Aristotle, Averros)


If there was an infinite chain of causes of the universe then there would be no universe now.

But there is a universe now.

Therefore, there must be a first cause of the universe.


the teleological argument (Paley, Al Kindi, Voltaire)


Most organisms in the world act for a purpose.

Most organisms are not aware.

Therefore, there must be a superior being directing their purpose.


the ontological argument (Saint Anselm, Descartes)


The concept of a supreme being is of a being with all perfections.

Existence is a perfection.

Therefore, the supreme being must exist.


the anthropological argument (Kant)


Without a higher being morals would be meaningless.

Morals need to have meaning.

Therefore, a higher being exists.


the argument from possibility (Kant)


All possibility presupposes something actual in and through which all that can be thought is given.

Accordingly, there is a certain reality, the cancellation of which would itself cancel all internal possibility.

But that, the cancellation of which eradicates all possibility, is absolutely necessary.

Therefore, something exists absolutely necessarily which contains the ultimate ground for all other possibilities.


St. Thomas Aquinas


Things are in motion, hence there is a first mover,

Things are caused, hence there is a first cause,

Things exist, hence there is a creator,

Perfect goodness exists, hence it has a source,

Things are designed, hence they serve a purpose.

Pascal's wager

If one believes in the Christian God then if he exists, one receives an infinitely great reward

and if he does not exist then one loses little or nothing.
If one does not believe in the Christian God then if he exists, one receives an infinitely great punishment

and if he does not exist then one gains little or nothing.
It is better to either receive an infinitely great reward or loose little or nothing

than it is to either receive an infinitely great punishment or gain little or nothing.
Therefore, it is better and more rational to believe in God than it is to disbelieve in God.



God either wants to eliminate bad things and cannot, or can but does not want to,

or neither wishes to nor can, or both wants to and can.

If he wants to and cannot, then he is weak - but this does not apply to God.

If he can but does not want to, then he is spiteful - which is equally foreign to God's nature.

If he neither wants to nor can, he is both weak and spiteful and so not a God.

If he wants to and can which is the only thing fitting for a God,

where then do the bad things come form? Or why does he not eliminate them?