Paul Hawken (19??)



Joseph Stiglitz (1943) is best known for his critical view of globalization and international

institutions like the International Monetary Fund while holding the extremely influential

positions as Senior Vice President and Chief Economist of the World Bank



Bruno Frey (1941) is best known for his critique of Homo economicus or economic man,

arguing that it places excessive emphasis on extrinsic motivation rather than intrinsic motivation



David Korten (19??)



Robert Emerson Lucas (1937) changed the foundations of macroeconomic theory (previously dominated

by the Keynesian economics approach), arguing that a macroeconomic model should have micro-foundations



Amartya Sen (1933)



Robert Mundell (1932) the Mundell-Friedman debate about fixed

exchange rates and a world currency led to the creation of the Euro



Israel Kirzner (1930)



JŠnos Kornai (1928) one of the one of the most respected specialists on the workings

of the socialism and communism economic systems and one of their harshest critics



Alan Greenspan (1926)



Kenneth Arrow (1921)



James Tobin (1918-2002) developed the idea of a tax on all foreign exchange

transactions in order to fund projects for the benefit of developing countries



Paul Samuelson (1915) popularized the Balassa-Samuelson effect, the Heckscher-Ohlin model, and

the Lindahl-Bowen-Samuelson conditions which are criteria for deciding whether an action will improve welfare



Milton Friedman (1912)



Fritz Schumacher (1911-1977) author of "Small is Beautiful"



Peter Drucker (1909-2005)



Aurelio Peccei (1908-1984) was the founder and first president of the Club of Rome



Jean Fourastiť (1907-1990)



Colin Clark (1905-1989) pioneered the use of the gross

national product as the basis for studying national economies



John Hicks (1904-1989)



Bertil Ohlin (1899-1979) developed the Heckscher-Ohlin model,

the standard mathematical model of international free trade



Lionel Charles Robbins (1898-1984) proposed one of the early contemporary definitions of economics,

"Economics is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship

between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses"



Ragnar Frisch (1895-1973) coined a number of new words including econometrics



Benjamin Graham (1894-1976)



Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kondratiev (1892-1938) proposed the theory that Western capitalist

economies have long term (40-60 year) cycles of boom followed by depression.

These cycles are now called "Kondratiev waves"



Joseph Alois Schumpeter (1883-1950) was a 20th century economist and one of the best read



John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946) started the study of macroeconomics



Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) argued in "On economic calculation in the socialist

commonwealth." that economics was an a priori science like mathematics, logic or

geometry, moreover, economics was just a part of a larger social science, which he

would later call "praxeology" - the logic of human action



Lillian Moller (1878-1972) and Frank Bunker Gilbreth (1868-1924)



Irving Fisher (1867-1947)



Thorstein Bunde Veblen (1857-1929) his most famous work,

"The Theory of the Leisure Class" is a satiric look at American society



Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915)



Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923)



Francis Ysidro Edgeworth (1845-1926)



Alfred Marshall (1842-1924) brought together the theories of supply and demand,

of marginal utility and of the costs of production into a coherent whole



Henry George (1839-1897) was the most influential proponent of the "Single Tax" on land



Gustav von Schmoller (1838-1917) was the leader of the "younger" German historical school

of economics and probably the most distiguished Continental economist of the time around 1900



William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882)



Lťon Walras (1834-1910 considered by Joseph Schumpeter as "the greatest

of all economists", founded the Lausanne school of economics with Pareto



Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) editor of the economist, coined  the phrase

 "survival of the fittest" and gave rise to Social Darwinism with his writings



Antoine Augustine Cournot (1801-1877) derived the first formula

for the rule of supply and demand as a function of price



Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)



David Ricardo (1772-1823) is often credited with systematizing economics,

and was one of the most influential of the classical economists



Adam Smith (1723-1790) author of "The wealth of nations", attempted

to show how virtue and liberty can complement eachother,


John Law (1671-1729)



Jean-Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683)



Luca Pacioli (1445Ė1514)